Boonton - Resource Library

## Noisecom > Application Notes

• ### BER Measurement

• #### Implementation Margin of a Satellite Communication System

The Implementation Margin of a satellite communication system is defined as the degradation of the signal after travelling through the up and downlink equipment. In order to find this, an EbNo generator such as the Noisecom CNG-EbNo Series can first be used to carry out an IF loopback test of the modem in order to find bit error rate (BER) values at different Eb/No ratios. A plot of these values can then be compared with the theoretical curve for the digital modulation scheme being used. The resultant difference is termed the implementation loss of the modem, and this value is used as a reference level for the second part of the test, in which the implementation margin of the complete up and downlink is found.

• #### Adding Analog Noises to the DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Network

Injecting Additive White Gaussian Noise (Gaussian Noise) of varying power from Noisecom noise generators into the cable network is an effective way to assess the extent of cable network’s ability to cope with Gaussian Noise interferences of varying intensity. In this application note, we highlight area where Gaussian Noise should be added to examine its impact and uses some of the signal quality metrics to assess the health of the DOCSIS network.

• #### Calculating the Max Eb/No Ratio You Can Provide with a Noisecom CNG-EbNo Unit

Eb/No is a very important parameter for those who work with digital communication systems. Usually this term shows up while discussing bit error rate (BER) or modulation methods in a communication system.

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise by the Numbers

Learn all you need to know about what noise can do, how it is created, types of noise Noisecom provides and how to control it. It is a great resource to define your noise requirements and identify what Noisecom product or products you can use: component, module or instrument. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise by the Numbers_cn.ashx" target="_new">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Measuring Crest Factor

This document provides Noisecom's method of measuring crest factor of a noise source using a LeCroy Wavepro 7200 Oscilloscope. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Measuring Crest Factor_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• ### Calibration Sources

• #### Implementation Margin of a Satellite Communication System

The Implementation Margin of a satellite communication system is defined as the degradation of the signal after travelling through the up and downlink equipment. In order to find this, an EbNo generator such as the Noisecom CNG-EbNo Series can first be used to carry out an IF loopback test of the modem in order to find bit error rate (BER) values at different Eb/No ratios. A plot of these values can then be compared with the theoretical curve for the digital modulation scheme being used. The resultant difference is termed the implementation loss of the modem, and this value is used as a reference level for the second part of the test, in which the implementation margin of the complete up and downlink is found.

• #### Cold Attenuator Noise Measurements on Cryogenic LNAs

In the quest to produce Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) with the lowest possible noise figures it is common to employ cryogenic techniques to cool the LNA to 20o kelvins (-253o C) or even lower. This has multiple beneficial effects: the minimum noise figure and noise resistance of the low noise transistors in the LNA are both substantially reduced, but also any ohmic losses in the LNA contribute far less thermal noise and indeed the losses themselves are usually substantially reduced as the conductivity of metals generally increases considerably at these low temperatures.

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise by the Numbers

Learn all you need to know about what noise can do, how it is created, types of noise Noisecom provides and how to control it. It is a great resource to define your noise requirements and identify what Noisecom product or products you can use: component, module or instrument. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise by the Numbers_cn.ashx" target="_new">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Measuring Crest Factor

This document provides Noisecom's method of measuring crest factor of a noise source using a LeCroy Wavepro 7200 Oscilloscope. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Measuring Crest Factor_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

The radiometer is a sensitive, accurate, calibrated receiver that is used for remote measurement of temperature. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/NoiseInjection Radiometers_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Calibrating Spectrum Analyzers With a Noise Source

A simple way to calibrate a spectrum analyzer is to use a broadband white noise source to monitor the analyzer's frequency response. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Calibrating Spectrum Analyzers With a Noise Source_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• ### GPS Signal Testing

• No application notes are available at this time.

• ### Jitter and Phase Noise

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Measuring Crest Factor

This document provides Noisecom's method of measuring crest factor of a noise source using a LeCroy Wavepro 7200 Oscilloscope. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Measuring Crest Factor_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• ### Noise Signal Generation

• #### Adding Analog Noises to the DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Network

Injecting Additive White Gaussian Noise (Gaussian Noise) of varying power from Noisecom noise generators into the cable network is an effective way to assess the extent of cable network’s ability to cope with Gaussian Noise interferences of varying intensity. In this application note, we highlight area where Gaussian Noise should be added to examine its impact and uses some of the signal quality metrics to assess the health of the DOCSIS network.

• #### Implementation Margin of a Satellite Communication System

The Implementation Margin of a satellite communication system is defined as the degradation of the signal after travelling through the up and downlink equipment. In order to find this, an EbNo generator such as the Noisecom CNG-EbNo Series can first be used to carry out an IF loopback test of the modem in order to find bit error rate (BER) values at different Eb/No ratios. A plot of these values can then be compared with the theoretical curve for the digital modulation scheme being used. The resultant difference is termed the implementation loss of the modem, and this value is used as a reference level for the second part of the test, in which the implementation margin of the complete up and downlink is found.

• #### Calculating the Max Eb/No Ratio You Can Provide with a Noisecom CNG-EbNo Unit

Eb/No is a very important parameter for those who work with digital communication systems. Usually this term shows up while discussing bit error rate (BER) or modulation methods in a communication system.

• #### Cold Attenuator Noise Measurements on Cryogenic LNAs

In the quest to produce Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) with the lowest possible noise figures it is common to employ cryogenic techniques to cool the LNA to 20o kelvins (-253o C) or even lower. This has multiple beneficial effects: the minimum noise figure and noise resistance of the low noise transistors in the LNA are both substantially reduced, but also any ohmic losses in the LNA contribute far less thermal noise and indeed the losses themselves are usually substantially reduced as the conductivity of metals generally increases considerably at these low temperatures.

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise by the Numbers

Learn all you need to know about what noise can do, how it is created, types of noise Noisecom provides and how to control it. It is a great resource to define your noise requirements and identify what Noisecom product or products you can use: component, module or instrument. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise by the Numbers_cn.ashx" target="_new">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Measuring Crest Factor

This document provides Noisecom's method of measuring crest factor of a noise source using a LeCroy Wavepro 7200 Oscilloscope. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Measuring Crest Factor_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Improving Noise Figure Measurement

Noise Com's NC346 and NC5000 Series are designed to be used with an HP8970 or similar Noise Figure Meter. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Improving Noise Figure Measurement_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

The radiometer is a sensitive, accurate, calibrated receiver that is used for remote measurement of temperature. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/NoiseInjection Radiometers_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Calibrating Spectrum Analyzers With a Noise Source

A simple way to calibrate a spectrum analyzer is to use a broadband white noise source to monitor the analyzer's frequency response. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Calibrating Spectrum Analyzers With a Noise Source_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise Diodes Randomize Quantization Errors in A/D Converters

A simple way to calibrate a spectrum analyzer is to use a broadband white noise source to monitor the analyzer's frequency response. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise Diodes Randomize Quantization Errors in AD Converters_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• ### Video Measurement

• #### Adding Analog Noises to the DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Network

Injecting Additive White Gaussian Noise (Gaussian Noise) of varying power from Noisecom noise generators into the cable network is an effective way to assess the extent of cable network’s ability to cope with Gaussian Noise interferences of varying intensity. In this application note, we highlight area where Gaussian Noise should be added to examine its impact and uses some of the signal quality metrics to assess the health of the DOCSIS network.

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise by the Numbers

Learn all you need to know about what noise can do, how it is created, types of noise Noisecom provides and how to control it. It is a great resource to define your noise requirements and identify what Noisecom product or products you can use: component, module or instrument. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise by the Numbers_cn.ashx" target="_new">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Measuring Crest Factor

This document provides Noisecom's method of measuring crest factor of a noise source using a LeCroy Wavepro 7200 Oscilloscope. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Measuring Crest Factor_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Accurate Es/No for DOCSIS / CATV BER Measurements

The Data-Over-Cable Service Radio Frequency Interface Specifications call out BER performance vs. Es/No as required tests for both the Upstream CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System) and Downstream CM (Cable Modem) receivers. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Accurate EsNo for DOCSIS CATV BER Measurements_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Calculating the Max Eb/No Ratio You Can Provide with a Noisecom CNG-EbNo Unit

Eb/No is a very important parameter for those who work with digital communication systems. Usually this term shows up while discussing bit error rate (BER) or modulation methods in a communication system.

• #### Implementation Margin of a Satellite Communication System

The Implementation Margin of a satellite communication system is defined as the degradation of the signal after travelling through the up and downlink equipment. In order to find this, an EbNo generator such as the Noisecom CNG-EbNo Series can first be used to carry out an IF loopback test of the modem in order to find bit error rate (BER) values at different Eb/No ratios. A plot of these values can then be compared with the theoretical curve for the digital modulation scheme being used. The resultant difference is termed the implementation loss of the modem, and this value is used as a reference level for the second part of the test, in which the implementation margin of the complete up and downlink is found.

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise by the Numbers

Learn all you need to know about what noise can do, how it is created, types of noise Noisecom provides and how to control it. It is a great resource to define your noise requirements and identify what Noisecom product or products you can use: component, module or instrument. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise by the Numbers_cn.ashx" target="_new">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Measuring Crest Factor

This document provides Noisecom's method of measuring crest factor of a noise source using a LeCroy Wavepro 7200 Oscilloscope. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Measuring Crest Factor_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• ### Military & Defense

• #### Calculating the Max Eb/No Ratio You Can Provide with a Noisecom CNG-EbNo Unit

Eb/No is a very important parameter for those who work with digital communication systems. Usually this term shows up while discussing bit error rate (BER) or modulation methods in a communication system.

• #### Cold Attenuator Noise Measurements on Cryogenic LNAs

In the quest to produce Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) with the lowest possible noise figures it is common to employ cryogenic techniques to cool the LNA to 20o kelvins (-253o C) or even lower. This has multiple beneficial effects: the minimum noise figure and noise resistance of the low noise transistors in the LNA are both substantially reduced, but also any ohmic losses in the LNA contribute far less thermal noise and indeed the losses themselves are usually substantially reduced as the conductivity of metals generally increases considerably at these low temperatures.

• #### Implementation Margin of a Satellite Communication System

The Implementation Margin of a satellite communication system is defined as the degradation of the signal after travelling through the up and downlink equipment. In order to find this, an EbNo generator such as the Noisecom CNG-EbNo Series can first be used to carry out an IF loopback test of the modem in order to find bit error rate (BER) values at different Eb/No ratios. A plot of these values can then be compared with the theoretical curve for the digital modulation scheme being used. The resultant difference is termed the implementation loss of the modem, and this value is used as a reference level for the second part of the test, in which the implementation margin of the complete up and downlink is found.

• #### Noise Basics

What Is Noise? All materials produce noise at a power level proportional to the physical temperature of the material. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/noise basics_cn.ashx" target="_blank">Chinese application note available.</a>

• #### Noise by the Numbers

Learn all you need to know about what noise can do, how it is created, types of noise Noisecom provides and how to control it. It is a great resource to define your noise requirements and identify what Noisecom product or products you can use: component, module or instrument. <a href="/~/media/Noisecom/Application Notes/Noise by the Numbers_cn.ashx" target="_new">Chinese application note available.</a>